The term Dark Ages used to refer to all of the Middle Ages (6th to 14th centuries). The Dark Ages refers to an intellectual darkness. However, there were actually a great number of accomplishments during this time so the Dark Ages now refers to the early medieval period, the time right after the fall of the Roman Empire which began around 410 CE, though the exact date is still debated.
Who came up with the concept of a Dark Age?
In the 1300s Petrarch used the term Dark in his criticism of Late Latin literature. He believed that the post-Roman centuries as "dark" compared to the light of classical antiquity. The term was originally used to denote the period between the fall of Rome and the Renaissance. It is important to note that the term Dark Ages, is not often used in modern times.
How is the period between the 5th and the 14th century divided?
The Middle Ages is divided into three: The Early Middle Ages (also referred to as the Dark Ages) which ends in the 11th century, the High Middle Ages which began during the 11th century and ends in 1300 (according to some scholars it lasted longer) and The Late Middle Ages which begins around 1300 and ends somewhere between 1500 and 1650.
What year did the Roman Empire collapse?
The collapse of the Roman Empire was a gradual process but by 550, the Empire had totally fallen.
What is a feudal or manorial system?
A feudal system is based on reciprocal obligations between lords and vassals to provide protection and service respectively.
What was the hierarchy of rules during the Dark Ages?
The King controlled all of the lands but divided it among Barons. In return, the Barons pledged their loyalty and fought as solder for the King. The Bishop was the top church leader and managed a diocese. Barons ruled vast areas called fiefs. They divided up their lands between Lords who ran the local manors The lords owned everything on their land including peasants, crops, and village.
What was the life expectancy during the Middle Ages?
Middle forties, if they survived until then!
Which significant event below began during the Early Middle Ages?
During the 6th century, Saint Benedict wrote the definitive Rule for Western monasticism which detailed the administrative and spiritual responsibilities of the monks led by the Abbot.
Why were monasteries so important during the Dark Ages?
Monasteries acted as the land trust for powerful families, centers of royal support in newly conquered regions, bases for mission and proselytization, and outposts of education and literacy.
Who is Charlemagne?
As the defender of Christianity, Charlemagne converted citizens as he fought to expand his empire. His empire encompassed much of Western Europe and he is responsible for ensuring the survival of Christianity in the West. He ruled from 768 to 814
When was the first outbreak of the bubonic plague?
In October of 1347, 12 Genoese trading ships docked in Sicilia after a long journey across the Black Sea. Most of the sailors on board were sick or had died. The surviving sailors were covered with black boils. Unfortunately, they were not alone. The rats who were carriers of the plague arrived on the same ships and began to spread the plague throughout the land.
What are the symptoms of the Black Death (the plague)
There are actually three different type of places. The bubonic plague is generally recognized by the large swollen lymph nodes commonly referred to as boils.
What animal is responsible for carrying the plague?
While most people assume that rats are solely responsible for transmitting the plague, it is actually the fleas that bite the rats and then bite the humans that are responsible for the spread of the disease. Any any animal infected can potentially transfer the plague, not just rats.
The Black Death is responsible for how many deaths in Europe during the Middle Ages?
Over five years, the plague killed more than 20 million people in Europe, almost 1/3 of the population.
What is the plague bacteria called?
What nursery rhyme is actually about the plague?
It's rumored that song Ring a Ring o"roses is actually about the Black Death but there is no proof one way or another.
What other religion was growing during the Middle Ages?
After Muhammed's death in 632 CE, Muslim armies conquered large parts of the Middle East and was more than three times bigger than all of Christndom.
In what year did the Crusades begin?
The Crusades began in 1095 when Pope Urban summoned a Christian army to go toJeruslam and to expel Muslim "infidels"
How long did the Crusades last?
The crusades began in the 11th century and continued until the 15th century.
What were the largest buildings in Medieval villages?
From the 10th century to the 13th century, cathedrals were built in the Romanesque style. At the start of the 13th century, church builders started to build Gothic structures instead.
Name a major technological contribution from this era
The printing press, glasses, and the compass are only a few of the many inventions that came out of this period. The early Middle Ages were originally called the Dark Ages because not much happened and life was dark and depressing. However, historians have since discovered that there were many great inventions during this period.
Name another major technological contribution from this era
The wheel had been invented long ago, but the wheelbarow wasn't invented until during the Middle Ages
What significant cultural movement occurred during the Late Medieval period?
After the stagnant years of the Early Middle Ages, a cultural and economic revival began to take place. Western European began to gain prominence, and Gothic style art and architecture became popular.
What was Constantinople?
After the fall of Rome, Emperor Constantine moved the capital to Constantinople (330). It remained the capital of the Roman Empire until it's fall in...
Which period did Constantinople fall, in early, middle, or late Middle Ages??
The capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Army began on April 6th, 1453.
What famous church was converted into a mosque after Constantinople was captured?
The Hagia Sophia was built as an Orthodox cathedral in 537 AD. Between 1204 and 1261, it was converted to a Roman Catholic cathedral by the fourth crusade. Once captured by the Ottoman Empire, it was converted into a mosque and remained so until it was secularized and opened as a museum in 1935.
What was the Magna Carta?
The Magna Carta is an incredibly important document as it demonstrates the power of the people to create a written document that limits the power of a sovereign. It is the first time history, way before the Declaration of Independence, that written document was created to set parameters for a person in power.
What was the role of the Knights Templar?
The Knights Templer began during the Crusades when Jerusalem was taken from the Muslims by the Christians. Pilgrimages to Jerusalem by Christians was very dangerous. Many pilgrims were often attached by members of the Ottoman Empire. The Knights Templars were worked to protect the pilgrims on their journey.
What code of conduct did the Medieval knights follow?
The French word chevalier originally means “a man of aristocratic Over time, the meaning evolved because the term was used differently during the Middle Ages. the meaning changed from “status or free associated with military follower owning a horse” or “a group of mounted knights” to the a code of conduct.
Which following legend became famous during the Middle Ages?
King Arthur was the legendary leader of Camelot that defendedBritain from Saxon invaders. The historical basis for King Arthur has been long debated. The legend of Robing Hood who steels from the rich and gives to the poor" may be based on real outlaws such as Hereward the Wake, Eustance he Monk, Fulk FitzWarin, or WIlliam Wallace. The Holy Grail refers to the cup used by Jesus at the last supper and the mythological search for it during the Middle Ages.
What were the four humors?
The four humors or bodily fluids were related to the elements. Fire = yellow bile, water = phlegm, earth = black bile, air = blood. Just the elements needed to remain balanced; the four humors needed to stay balanced for a person to be healthy. For example, too much black bile meant a person might feel melancholy.
What or who is Ergot?
During the summer time, the crops would run low, and the townspeople would eat stored rye from an earlier harvest. Unfortunately, this rye often contained a fungus called ergot that could cause hallucinations.
What was the name of the famous female knight?
Petronilla, Countess of Leicester fought alongside her husband Robert during the 1173 rebellion against King Henry II.
What favorite American sport was at one point banned by King Edward II in 1314?
Football was played with a pig's bladder and was so violent that King Edward II banned the game in 1314.
Since Edward II banned football, what sport did he deem mandatory for lower call men to practice?
Englishmen between the ages of 15 to 60 were ordered by Law to own a bow and practice archery.
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